Assignment: REGARDING VOLATILE ANAESTHETIC AGENTS, DEFINE MINIMAL ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION (MAC) AND LIST SIX (6) FACTORS THAT ARE CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT IN REDUCING MAC IN SMALL ANIMALS

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REGARDING VOLATILE ANAESTHETIC AGENTS, DEFINE MINIMAL ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION (MAC) AND LIST SIX (6) FACTORS THAT ARE CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT IN REDUCING MAC IN SMALL ANIMALS
1. Answer all parts of this question:a) Regarding volatile anaesthetic agents, define minimal alveolar concentration(MAC) and list six (6) factors that are clinically significant in reducing MAC insmall animals. (6 marks)b) Define and describe the ‘Cushings reflex’ and describe the pathophysiologicalevents that lead to its clinical manifestation. (11 marks)c) Explain how intracranial pressure is normally regulated and briefly discuss theeffects of changing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen oncerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure. (8 marks)d) Discuss the anaesthetic considerations and recommendations for a two-year-oldcross-breed dog undergoing surgical placement of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.Include in your answer a commentary on the effects of the intravenous andinhalational anaesthetic agents cited in your answer on cerebral blood flow andintracranial pressure. (20 marks)2. Answer all parts of this question:a) Define the terms biofilm and glycocalyx, and describe the stages of biofilmformation in the context of surgical implants. (10 marks)b) Describe how biofilms potentiate orthopaedic implant related infection andimpede effective treatment. (10 marks)c) Compare and contrast modes of failure between locking and non-locking boneplate systems employed for diaphyseal fracture fixation in a non-load sharingsituation. (15 marks)d) With reference to the literature, describe how plate length, screw selection andscrew placement influence the biomechanics of locking plate-bone constructs ina non-load sharing situation. (10 marks)Continued over pageSmall Animal Surgery Paper 1 Page 3 of 3© 2016 The Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists ABN 00 50 000894 2083. Answer all parts of this question:a) The local effect of a full thickness cutaneous burn injury may be classified on azonal basis. Name and briefly describe the characteristics of each zone.(5 marks)b) Discuss the systemic pathophysiological effects of significant exposure to adomestic house fire resulting in full thickness burn injury to over 25% of bodysurface area. Restrict your answer to respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic,haematopoietic, electrolytic and body fluid effects. (22 marks)c) Outline the initial management and treatment protocol for a patient presentingfollowing exposure to a house fire with significant burn injuries. Restrict youranswer to the first 48 hours following presentation. (18 marks)4. Answer all parts of this question:

 
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